In the name of God, most Gracious, most Compassionate
Prophet Muhammad (SAS) is the last messenger of Allah Subhanahu Taala.He was born in 570CE in the holy land of Mecca.His father's name was Abdullah and Mother was Amina,belonged to Quraish Tribe.He was orphaned at the tender age of 6 and was brought up under the care and guidance of his uncle,Abu Talib.At the age of 25, he was married to a rich merchant widow,Khadijah.Her age then was 40yrs.
Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection.Muhammad (SAS) was forty when, during his one of many retreats to Mount Hira for meditation during the month of Ramadan, he received the first revelation from the Archangel Jibril (Gabriel). On this first appearance, Gabriel (as) said to Muhammad(SAS): "Iqraa," meaning Read or Recite. Muhammad(SAS) replied, "I cannot read," as he had not received any formal education and did not know how to read or write. The Angel Gabriel then embraced him until he reached the limit of his endurance and after releasing said: "Iqraa." Muhammad’s answer was the same as before. Gabriel repeated the embrace for the third time, asked him to repeat after him and said:
"Recite in the name of your Lord who created! He created man from that which clings. Recite; and thy Lord is most Bountiful, He who has taught by the pen, taught man what he knew not."
These revelations are the first five verses of Surah (chapter) 96 of the Qur’an. Thus it was in the year 610 CE the revelation began.
The Holy Quran was revealed over a period of 23 years.The revelations that he received were sometimes a few verses, a part of a chapter or the whole chapter.
The mission of Prophet Muhammad (SAS) was to restore the worship of the One True God, the creator and sustainer of the universe, as taught by Prophet Ibrahim and all Prophets of God, and to demonstrate and complete the laws of moral, ethical, legal, and social conduct and all other matters of significance for the humanity at large.
For the first three years, or rather less, of his mission, the Prophet preached to his family and his intimate friends, while the people of Makkah as a whole regarded him as one who had become a little mad. The first of all his converts was his wife Khadijah, the second his first cousin Ali, whom he had adopted, the third his servant Zayd, a former slave. His old friend Abu Bakr also was among those early converts. By the end of three years of his mission only forty people accepted islam.
At the end of the third year the Prophet received the command to “arise and warn,” whereupon he began to preach in public, pointing out the wretched folly of idolatry in face of the tremendous laws of day and night, of life and death, of growth and decay, which manifest the power of Allah and attest His sovereignty. It was then, when he began to speak against their gods, that Quraysh became actively hostile, persecuting his poorer disciples, mocking and insulting him. The one consideration which prevented them from killing him was fear of the blood-vengeance of the clan to which his family belonged. Strong in his inspiration, the Prophet went on warning, pleading, threatening, while Quraysh did all they could to ridicule his teaching, and deject his followers.
During his lifetime major battles like Battle of Badr,Battle of Uhad and Battle of Trench were fought between Muslims and non believers.
The Prophet performed his first and last pilgrimage in 632 CE. One hundred twenty-thousand men and women performed pilgrimage that year with him. The Prophet received the last revelation during this pilgrimage. Two months later, Prophet Muhammad (SAS) fell ill and after several days died on Monday, 12 Rabi al-Awwal, the eleventh year after Hijra (June 8, 632 CE) in Medinah. He is buried in the same place where he died.
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